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works -- share are several factors that make
them attractive to military planners.
Most important among them is cost. "It
conserves a huge amount of money," said
Mike McCarthy, operations director of
the Army s Brigade Modernization Com-
mand s Mission Command Complex at
Fort Bliss, Texas.
A typical brigade rotation to the Na-
tional Training Center at Fort Irwin, Ca-
lif., costs $24 million to $25 million, $20
million of which is for transportation.
Increased use of networked simulations
eliminates most of the transportation
requirements and frees that money for
other uses, McCarthy said.
But networked training that combines
live and simulated experiences also creates
a more e cient environment for training
war ghters. McCarthy said networked
simulations can be used for development
of basic skills so troops enter live training
at a higher level -- and are thus better able
to take advantage of it. ey can also help
train combat leaders without the need
to waste their troops time on a live- re
range, he said.
Networked simulations "don t replace the
value of live training. ey only make live
training more e ective," added McCarthy.
Networked simulations also are useful
when live resources -- such as advanced jet
ghters likely to be own by enemy forces --
aren t readily available.
" e ability to repetitively train pilots for
complex adversarial encounters is di cult
to service purely by live aircra in today s re-
source-constrained environment," said Col.
Robert McCutchen (ret.), former vice com-
mander of the 944th Fighter Wing at Luke
Air Force Base, Ariz., who in his civilian job
is a ight simulation engineer for Lockheed
Martin, which runs the Luke Air Force Base
center for the Air Force. "LVC events take
mission readiness to a new level by allowing
pilots to experience the challenging envi-
ronments they could face in combat."
e Army s LVC-IA provides improved
realism over previous simulations by creat-
ing a common operating picture with data
from live, virtual and constructive systems
that mirror reports from live units, said
LTC Shane Cipolla, director of the project
o ce for integrating architecture at Fort
Leavenworth, Kan., which comes under the
Army s Training and Doctrine Command.
" e COP (common operating picture)
that these data create gives the commander
and sta the ability to practice decision
making in a very realistic setting. One sig-
ni cant advantage is that the ITE allows
multiple echelons to train simultaneously,
without having to put entire units in the
training area," Cipolla said. "It even creates
synthetic training areas for simulated units
to maneuver, without actually having to
have the physical space on the ground. e
ITE does not replace live training, but does
help the commander meet his or her train-
ing objectives and help his unit enter live
training at a higher level of pro ciency."
One part of the networked architecture is
the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement
System, or MILES, a familiar training tool
for soldier for decades that now also includes
a radio frequency component to simulate
indirect re and tank re through walls or
other obstacles in urban environments.
Cipolla said the Army is also looking at
several new technologies for the next ver-
sion of LVC-IA, including those that would
enable the system to link with classi ed
networks, support simultaneous training
at several installations, engage multiple bri-
gades simultaneously and be interoperable
with systems used by other services, includ-
ing coalition partners.
At Fort Bliss, soldiers are testing new
simulation technologies that enable a single
brigade to plug its live training into a larger,
virtual unit, along with ones that enable
units to train in their own facilities as if they
were on a live range, McCarthy said.
Industry also is developing even more
advanced solutions. For example, Cubic
Defense Systems o ers networked simula-
tion training systems that are deployable,
so units can take them to Afghanistan and
other hotspots around the world. e sys-
tems also are adaptable to changing con-
ditions, enabling troops deployed for one
mission to quickly train for another, said
Bert Ges, director of Cubic s war ghter ef-
e company s Mission Rehearsal Plan-
ning System enables leaders to test di erent
scenarios while a simulation is running,
Ges said. "It s all about minimizing surprise
for the decision-maker," he said.
"Nothing replaces eldcra , and noth-
ing replaces moving around out there," but
networked simulation systems are becom-
ing more realistic and capable of closely
replicating the realities of modern com-
bat, even to the point of giving soldiers a
realistic sense of the terrain on which they
would ght, he said. "It s not exactly alike,
but it s pretty good." ■
36 DECEMBER 2012 | DefenseSystems.com
NETWORKED SIMULATION AND TRAINING
Italian Army Chief of Staff LTG Claudio Graziano is briefed inside Cubic's training dome at
the recent Association of the United States Army exhibition in Washington D.C.
PHOTO BY BARRY ROSENBERG
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